Ti:Sapphire (Titanium sapphire)

Ti:Sapphire (Titanium sapphire)

Ti:Sapphire crystal product, also known as titanium doped sapphire crystal, with the chemical formula of Ti3+:Al2O3. It is a transition metal doped laser crystal with good comprehensive performance.

As an optically pumped solid-state laser crystal, Ti-doped sapphire is widely used in wavelength tunable lasers. The tunable range is 650-1100 nm and the peak value is 800 nm. It is the widest wavelength tunable laser crystal.

Ti3+ ions have very large gain bandwidth, which opens the possibility of obtaining very wide wavelength tunability in short pulse lasers. The upper state lifetime of Ti: sapphire is as short as 3.2 μs. because of its high saturated power. It is generally used as a lamp, an argon ion laser or a frequency double pumped Nd:YAG laser.

Using self mode locking technology, Ti: sapphire laser can directly output laser pulses with a pulse width of less than 6.5 fs, which is the narrowest laser pulse of all lasers directly output from the resonator. Through the dual frequency technology, the wavelength of the laser beam can cover the wideband from blue to deep UV.

The 193 nm laser produced has been used in the lithography machine. The product has the characteristics of short service life and high saturation power. It can be used in lamps, argon ion lasers or frequency double pumped Nd:YAG lasers.

  • High damage threshold
  • With wide absorption pump
  • The narrow width of lock mode
  • Wide wavelength tunability
  • The output efficiency of excellence
  • On the state of life is short (3.2 μs)

Material Specifications

Concentration(0.05~0.35) wt%
OrientationThe A-axis is within 5 degrees, and the E-vector is parallel to the C-axis
Wavefront Distortion<λ /4@632 nm
Surface Flatness<λ/8@632 nm
Clear Aperture>90%
Surface Quality10-5(MIL-PRF-13830B)
CoatingStandard coating is AR with R < 5.0% each
face @532 nm and R < 0.5% each face,
from 650 nm to 850 nm. Custom coatings

Physical and Chemical Properties

Crystal StructureHexagonal System
Density3.98 g/cm3
Melting Point2040 °C
Coefficient of Thermal Conductivity33 W / (m K)
Refractive Index Temperature Coefficient13 × 106K1
Thermal Shock Resistance Parameters790 W/m
Thermal Expansion≈ 5 × 10-6K-1
Hardness (Mohs)9
Young modulus/ GPa335
Specific Heat Capacity 0.1 cal/g
Tensile Strength/ Mpa400
0.1%Titanium density4.56 × 1019cm3

Optical and Spectral Properties

Laser TransitionF3/2→F1/2
Laser Wavelength,660-1200 nm
Center800 nm
Tunable Absorption Band400-600 nm
Absorption Peak488 nm
Emission Cross Section@ 790 nm41 × 10-20 cm2
Fluorescence Lifetime3.2 μs
Emission Line Width650-1100 nm
Refractive Index@ 633 nm1.77@ 532 nm; 1.76@800 nm; 1.75@1100 nm
Absorption Coefficient0.8~7.0 cm-1

Absorption and Emission Spectra

Ti:Sapphire Absorption Curve
Ti:Sapphire Emission Curve

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